Chapter 9: Summary of Cranial Nerves

Introduction The regional aspects of the cranial nerves are described in the preceding chapters, especially those for the head and neck. This chapter summarizes all of the cranial nerves, largely in figures and tables. Figures 9.1,9.2–9.3 and Tables 9.1 and 9.2 summarize specific cranial nerves. Figure 9.4 and Table 9.3 summarize the cranial parasympathetic ganglia, […]

Chapter 8: Neck

Overview The neck is the transitional area between the base of the cranium superiorly and the clavicles inferiorly. The neck joins the head to the trunk and limbs, serving as a major conduit for structures passing between them. In addition, several important organs with unique functions are located here: the larynx and the thyroid and […]

Chapter 7: Head – part 2

Eye, Orbit, Orbital Region, and Eyeball The eye is the organ of vision and consists of the eyeball and the optic nerve. The orbit contains the eyeball and its accessory visual structures (L., adnexa oculi). The orbital region is the area of the face overlying the orbit and eyeball and includes the upper and lower […]

Chapter 7: Head

Overview of Head The head is the superior part of the body that is attached to the trunk by the neck. It is the control and communications center as well as the “loading dock” for the body. It houses the brain; therefore, it is the site of our consciousness: ideas, creativity, imagination, responses, decision making, […]

Chapter 6: Upper Limb – part 2

Forearm The forearm is the distal unit of the articulated strut (extension) of the upper limb. It extends from the elbow to the wrist and contains two bones, the radius and ulna, which are joined by an interosseous membrane (Fig. 6.56A, B, & D). Although thin, this fibrous membrane is strong. In addition to firmly […]

Chapter 6: Upper Limb

Overview of Upper Limb The upper limb is characterized by its mobility and ability to grasp, strike, and conduct fine motor skills (manipulation). These characteristics are especially marked in the hand when performing manual activities, such as buttoning a shirt. Synchronized interplay occurs between the joints of the upper limb to coordinate the intervening segments […]

Chapter 5: Lower Limb – part 2

Popliteal Fossa and Leg Popliteal Region The popliteal fossa is a mostly fat-filled compartment of the lower limb. Superficially, when the knee is flexed, the popliteal fossa is evident as a diamond-shaped depression posterior to the knee joint (Fig. 5.49). The size of the gap between the hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles is misleading, however, in […]

Chapter 5: Lower Limb

Overview of Lower Limb The lower limbs (extremities) are extensions from the trunk specialized to support body weight, for locomotion (the ability to move from one place to another), and to maintain balance. The lower limbs have six major regions (Fig. 5.1): Figure 5.1. Regions and bones of lower limb. The gluteal region (G. gloutos, […]

Chapter 4: Back

Overview of Back and Vertebral Column The back comprises the posterior aspect of the trunk, inferior to the neck and superior to the buttocks. It is the region of the body to which the head, neck, and limbs are attached. The back includes the: Skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscles: a superficial layer, primarily concerned with […]

Chapter 3: Pelvis and Perineum – part 2

Male Internal Genital Organs The male internal genital organs include the testes, epididymides (singular = epididymis), ductus deferentes (singular = ductus deferens), seminal glands, ejaculatory ducts, prostate, and bulbo-urethral glands (Fig. 3.34). The testes and epididymides (described in Chapter 2) are considered internal genital organs on the basis of their developmental position and homology with […]