Chapter 1: Thorax

Overview of Thorax The thorax is the part of the body between the neck and abdomen. Commonly the term chest is used as a synonym for thorax, but the chest is much more extensive than the thoracic wall and cavity contained within it. The chest is generally conceived as the superior part of the trunk […]

Chapter 1 Thorax – part 2

 Myocardial Infarction With sudden occlusion of a major artery by an embolus (G. embolos, plug), the region of myocardium supplied by the occluded vessel becomes infarcted (rendered virtually bloodless) and undergoes necrosis (pathological tissue death). The three most common sites of coronary artery occlusion and the percentage of occlusions involving each artery are the: Anterior […]

Chapter 2: Abdomen

Introduction The abdomen is the part of the trunk between the thorax and the pelvis (Fig. 2.1). It is a flexible, dynamic container, housing most of the organs of the alimentary system and part of the urogenital system. Containment of the abdominal organs and their contents is provided by musculo-aponeurotic walls anterolaterally, the diaphragm superiorly, […]

Chapter 2: Abdomen – part 2

 Spleen The spleen is an ovoid, usually purplish, pulpy mass about the size and shape of one’s fist. It is relatively delicate and considered the most vulnerable abdominal organ. The spleen is located in the superolateral part of the left upper quadrant (LUQ), or hypochondrium of the abdomen, where it enjoys protection of the inferior […]

Chapter 3: Pelvis and Perineum

Introduction to Pelvis and Perineum In common usage, the pelvis (L. basin) is the part of the trunk that is inferoposterior to the abdomen, and is the area of transition between the trunk and the lower limbs. The pelvic cavity is the inferiormost part of the abdominopelvic cavity. Anatomically, the pelvis is the part of […]

Chapter 3: Pelvis and Perineum – part 2

Male Internal Genital Organs The male internal genital organs include the testes, epididymides (singular = epididymis), ductus deferentes (singular = ductus deferens), seminal glands, ejaculatory ducts, prostate, and bulbo-urethral glands (Fig. 3.34). The testes and epididymides (described in Chapter 2) are considered internal genital organs on the basis of their developmental position and homology with […]

Chapter 4: Back

Overview of Back and Vertebral Column The back comprises the posterior aspect of the trunk, inferior to the neck and superior to the buttocks. It is the region of the body to which the head, neck, and limbs are attached. The back includes the: Skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscles: a superficial layer, primarily concerned with […]

Chapter 5: Lower Limb

Overview of Lower Limb The lower limbs (extremities) are extensions from the trunk specialized to support body weight, for locomotion (the ability to move from one place to another), and to maintain balance. The lower limbs have six major regions (Fig. 5.1): Figure 5.1. Regions and bones of lower limb. The gluteal region (G. gloutos, […]

Chapter 5: Lower Limb – part 2

Popliteal Fossa and Leg Popliteal Region The popliteal fossa is a mostly fat-filled compartment of the lower limb. Superficially, when the knee is flexed, the popliteal fossa is evident as a diamond-shaped depression posterior to the knee joint (Fig. 5.49). The size of the gap between the hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles is misleading, however, in […]

Chapter 6: Upper Limb

Overview of Upper Limb The upper limb is characterized by its mobility and ability to grasp, strike, and conduct fine motor skills (manipulation). These characteristics are especially marked in the hand when performing manual activities, such as buttoning a shirt. Synchronized interplay occurs between the joints of the upper limb to coordinate the intervening segments […]