Chapter 1: Overview of the Central Nervous System

Objectives In this chapter, the student should: Understand the basic language and terminology commonly used in neuroanatomy. Identify key regions and general functions within the cerebral cortex, including the precentral, prefrontal, postcentral, temporal, and occipital cortices. Identify the major functions of subcortical structures within the forebrain, including the ventricles of the brain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, […]

Chapter 2: Development of the Nervous System

Objectives In this chapter, the student is expected to know: The early aspects of brain development, including the formation of the primary brain vesicles. How the spinal cord and brainstem are formed. Where sensory, motor, and autonomic structures of the spinal cord and brainstem are situated relative to one another. The gross organization of the […]

Chapter 3: Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid

Objectives In this chapter, the student should learn: The anatomy and function of the coverings of the brain and their relationship to venous sinuses and subarachnoid fluid spaces (cisterns). The differences between the coverings of the spinal cord and the brain, including anatomical features of the lumbar cistern and its importance in lumbar puncture. The […]

Chapter 4: Blood Supply of the Central Nervous System

Objectives In this chapter, the student should be able to describe: The major arteries (internal carotid and vertebral) and their prominent branches supplying the brain. The prominent neural structures supplied by these arteries. The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis). The sinuses of the dura and the major veins draining the brain. The arterial blood […]

Chapter 5: Histology of the Nervous System

Objectives In this chapter, the student is expected to know: The composition and function of different components of the neuron (e.g., plasma membrane, cell body, nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, dendrites, and axon). The mechanism of axonal transport and its application to the study of neuroanatomy. Different types of neurons found within the nervous system. Different types […]

Chapter 6: Electrophysiology of Neurons

Objectives In this chapter, the student is expected to: Know the structure and permeability of the neuronal membrane. Know the mechanisms of different types of transport (simple diffusion, passive or facilitated diffusion, and active transport). Understand the properties and functions of Na+-K+ ATPase. Know the general properties of ion channels and their major classes. Learn […]

Chapter 7: Synaptic Transmission

Objectives In this chapter, the student is expected to: Know the salient features of chemical transmission. Know the characteristics of electrical transmission. Know the components of receptors. Define indirectly gated ion channels. Know the mechanism of directly gated synaptic transmission at the peripheral synapse (nerve-muscle synapse). Know the mechanism of directly gated synaptic transmission at […]

Chapter 8: Neurotransmitters

Objectives In this chapter, the student is expected to know: The definition of a neurotransmitter, criteria for accepting a substance as a neurotransmitter, and the major classes of neurotransmitters and the differences between them. Individual neurotransmitters: synthesis, release, removal, the receptors on which they act, and their role in physiological functions. Clinical conditions related to […]

Chapter 9: The Spinal Cord

Objectives In this chapter, the student is expected to know: The gross anatomy of the spinal cord. Internal structure of the spinal cord. Spinal segmentation: morphological differences among the different levels of spinal cord. Cytoarchitectural organization of the spinal cord: cellular laminae. The major spinal cell groups, or nuclei. The course of the afferent fibers […]

Chapter 10: Brainstem I: The Medulla

Objectives In this chapter, the student is expected to: Develop a general understanding of the gross anatomical arrangement of the medulla. Know the internal organization of the major fiber pathways that ascend and descend through the medulla. Be able to identify the major cell groups at different levels of the medulla. Develop the basis for […]