Chapter 21: Some Cognitive Concepts

Case 62. A Message About Methods An 18-year-old woman with a history of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) was admitted to the hospital with fever, chills, sweating, myalgias, and headache. With these symptoms, it sounds to me as if she is infected. It could also be her underlying disease, but that usually does not present in […]

Chapter 22: Learning Clinical Problem Solving

Case 67. Learning Clinical Reasoning from Examples A 48-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of headaches and neck stiffness. He also had a mild sore throat, a dry mouth, and a temperature as high as 39°C associated with chills. He had no confusion, nausea, vomiting, or changes in mental status. There was no history […]


Adequacy: Diagnostic sufficiency. An adequate diagnostic hypothesis is one that encompasses all elementary hypotheses under consideration and accounts for all of the patient’s findings, whether abnormal or normal. Ambiguity: The degree of uncertainty in a probability assessment. The degree of confidence in a probability assessment. A second-order probability; the probability of a probability. Anchoring heuristic; […]