Chapter 31: Protein Synthesis

Overview Genetic information, stored in the chromosomes and transmitted to daughter cells through DNA replication, is expressed through transcription to RNA and, in the case of messenger RNA (mRNA), subsequent translation into proteins (polypeptide chains, Figure 31.1). The pathway of protein synthesis is called translation because the “language” of the nucleotide sequence on the mRNA […]

Chapter 32: Regulation of Gene Expression

Overview Gene expression refers to the multistep process that ultimately results in the production of a functional gene product, either ribonucleic acid (RNA) or protein. The first step in gene expression—the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for the synthesis of RNA (transcription)—is the primary site of regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, however, […]

Chapter 33: Biotechnology and Human Disease

Overview In the past, efforts to understand genes and their expression have been confounded by the immense size and complexity of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The human genome contains approximately three billion (109) base pairs (bp) that encode 20,000 to 30,000 protein-coding genes located on 23 pairs of chromosomes. It is now possible to determine […]