Unit IX Study Questions

Study Questions Choose the ONE best answer. IX.1. A 23-year-old pregnant woman in her third trimester complains to her friend that her feet and ankles are frequently swollen. The swelling is most likely caused by which of the following? A. High pedal venous pressures B. Increased left ventricular preload C. Hypertension (preeclampsia) D. Decreased blood […]

Chapter 40: Systems Failure

I. Overview I like a look of Agony, Because I know it’s true – Men do not sham Convulsion, Nor simulate, a Throe – The Eyes glaze once – and that is Death – Impossible to feign The Beads upon the Forehead By homely Anguish strung. Emily Dickinson We are all destined to die. Living […]

Chapter 39: Exercise

I. Overview Historically, humans have engaged in physical activity to fetch water, to forage, and to journey to hunting sites in order to secure food. In modernday society, we enjoy the luxury of fresh, clean water delivered to our homes; food readily available from local stores and restaurants; and multiple transportation options to facilitate travel. […]

Chapter 38: Thermal Stress and Fever

I. Overview The ability to dissipate and retain heat, combined with the ability to adapt behaviorally to temperature extremes, has allowed humans to occupy most regions of the Earth’s surface, including Plateau Station, Antarctica (average temperature = ?55°C) and Dallol, Ethiopia (average temperature = 35°C). The body’s internal temperature can rise to 39°–40°C without causing […]

Chapter 37: Pregnancy and Birth

I. Overview Pregnancy and birth are exceptional phenomena that place extreme demands on both mother and fetus. Although the likelihood of success seems improbable once the complexity of the underlying physiology is appreciated, the current global population of ~7 billion shows it to be a highly reliable way of perpetuating the species. A successful pregnancy […]

Unit VIII Study Questions

Study Questions Choose the ONE best answer. VIII.1. A 22-year-old woman is participating in a drug study affecting pancreatic hormones. If the test drug greatly elevates glucagon levels while having no effect on insulin release, which of the following processes are most likely to increase? A. Lipolysis in adipocytes B. Glycolysis in skeletal and cardiac […]

Chapter 36: Female and Male Gonads

I. Overview “Gonad” is derived from the Greek word gonos, which translates to “seed” or “family.” Gonads produce seed cells (gametes) that can divide and replicate into an organism, and reproduction forms a family lineage. In a basic sense, the primary purpose of any species is to pass along a unique set of deoxyribonucleic acids […]

Chapter 35: Thyroid and Parathyroid Hormones

Overview The cells that make up the human body vary widely with respect to their metabolic and development rates. Thyroid hormones provide the brain with a global method to govern these processes outside of conditions of acute stress. The thyroid gland is located in the neck just below the larynx (Figure 35.1) and is regulated […]

Chapter 34: Adrenal Glands

Overview The adrenal (suprarenal) glands provide the bloodborne signals of stress, epinephrine, and cortisol. The sounding of the body’s alarms and defenses helps an individual survive physical threats, endure pain, and tap the body’s physical and metabolic reserves. In modern humans, stress is often more mental and social in nature, but such events elicit very […]

Chapter 33: Endocrine Pancreas and Liver

Overview All cells need energy to survive and grow. The endocrine pancreas and liver regulate bloodborne energy substrate availability, namely, glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies, and amino acids. Of these, glucose forms the backbone of cellular energetics (i.e., glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation). Blood glucose levels are regulated by the pancreatic hormones insulin, […]