Chapter 11: Decision and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: M.A.A.R.I.E. Framework—Method, Assignment, and Assessment

Introduction Decision making in health care and public health has traditionally relied on subjective judgments, expert opinions, and nonquantitative decision making. Today, we increasingly rely on quantitative methods. Potential interventions, from prevention to palliation, are subjected to measurements of outcome that take into account the desirable outcomes (benefits), the undesirable outcomes (harms), and the financial […]

Chapter 12: Decision and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: M.A.A.R.I.E. Framework—Results, Interpretation, and Extrapolation

Introduction The results component of the M.A.A.R.I.E. framework for decision-making investigations asks us to address the issues of estimation, inference, and adjustment. The aim of estimation is to provide the best possible estimation of the strength of the relationship, that is a measure of the magnitude of the advantage of the best option compared to […]

Chapter 13: A Guide to the Guidelines

Introduction Most practitioners encounter evidence in their daily practice through the use of guidelines or recommendations. Evidence-based guidelines or evidence-based recommendations attempt to synthesize the evidence in order to provide a wide range of recommendations for making decisions. Recommendations for clinical practice are not new; they are as old as the teaching of the health […]

Chapter 14: Translating Evidence into Practice

Introduction Putting evidence into practice is perhaps the most challenging and important job facing us whether we are clinicians trying to improve the quality of medical care, public health practitioners trying to improve population health, or health researchers using evidence to design the next investigation. Regardless of how we use research evidence, there are a […]